Barn Owls

Until this week, I had never seen a barn owl in the wild. While they are found on every continent except North America, they are rare in Canada. It is estimated that there are fewer than 1000 in Canada in total, most of which are found in southern British Columbia. While walking Brock in a local park one evening, we met an individual who said he had seen a barn owl in that very park, at dusk. The next day, we returned to the park at dusk, and were fortunate to encounter the owl. It flew right over us. I did not have my camera with me, so I again returned to the park at dusk with my camera the following evening and was fortunate to encounter the owl. (It is likely that there is a nest in a barn owl nesting box located in an inaccessible part of the park.) In four visits at dusk, we were able to see the owl on each occasion.

Photo taken almost 30 minutes after sunset.
Last night, we saw the owl sitting on a swallow nesting box, patiently watching for motion in the grassy fields nearby. As I approached, it was clearly aware of me, but sensing no danger , it remained on the post while I crept closer. It soon became apparent that it had detected a rodent moving in the grass and it closely observed and listened for movement, as it became darker.
After about 20 minutes, the owl pounced into the long grass. It was apparent that the owl had managed to catch a small rodent, as the owl did not reappear. After about five minutes, I cautiously approached and took the following photo, as the owl spread out its wings to hide its catch from me. It was quite dark at this point (photo shot at ISO 5000.)
At this time it was about 40 minutes after sunset.

The Canadian Rockies (Part Two)

This most recent trip to the Rockies was exceptional for seeing both black bears and grizzly bears. However, we were unable to spot any mountain goats or moose. As always, there are many birds to be seen, although this is a relatively quiet time of year for birds.

The raven. Our morning alarm clock in Banff.
Three very young bear cubs in Banff. Mother was close by.
Mother black bear with one of the cubs.
Mule deer stag
Cedar waxwing
Columbian ground squirrels
Mother grizzly bear
Spotted sandpiper
Golden mantled ground squirrel
Black bear turning over a large rock to find food. An awesome indicator of a bear’s strength!
Bighorn sheep (ram)
Bighorn females and young
White-crowned sparrow
Green-winged teal ducklings
Grizzly bear yearling

The Canadian Rockies (Part One)

In mid-July, we took a trip to the Canadian Rockies. After living in Eastern Canada and the USA for so many years, it was a surprise to realize that we now live less than eight hours by road from either Banff or Jasper. With travel restrictions in place, the parks were not as busy as usual, and we were readily able to camp in the parks, and maintain social isolation. As we have had a cool spring and cool early summer this year, there is still a lot of snow and ice in the mountains. The scenery is spectacular.

Kinney Lake, Mount Robson Provincial Park, BC
The wildflowers are also exceptional at this time of year.
Moraine Lake, Banff National Park, Alberta
Waterfall at Mount Edith Cavell, Jasper National Park, AB
Bow Lake, Banff National Park, AB
In Banff NP
Glacier, Mount Edith Cavell, Jasper National Park
Top of Mount Robson, BC
Mount Robson, viewed from the Visitor Centre, Mount Robson Provincial Park. This south side of Mount Robson features about 9000 feet of vertical drop.It is the highest mountain in the Canadian Rockies.
Johnson Lake, Banff NP
Bow Lake, Banff NP
Columbia Icefield, Jasper NP
Upper Waterfowl Lake, Banff NP
Mountain peaks, viewed from the Icefields Highway, between Banff and Jasper

The South Okanagan

Last week, we took a short trip to the South Okanagan. Despite stormy weather, it was a very good trip for seeing “new to us” birds, as well as for wildflowers, animals and beautiful scenery.

Western bluebird
Lazuli bunting
Western bluebird
Western tanager
Yellow-headed blackbird
Bullock’s oriole
Say’s phoebes
Black bear
Mule deer buck
Willow flycatcher
Cedar waxwing eating a Saskatoon berry
Bees enterring hive in a ponderosa pine
Calliope hummingbird – this is a very tiny hummingbird, in fact the smallest bird native to Canada and the USA
A very distant and rare Lewis’s woodpecker. It actually has a pink breast and is the only pink coloured bird native to Canada
Black-chinned hummingbird: (only found in a very narrow range in Canada)
California quail

Birds of the Coastal Forest

I have very much enjoyed discovering new places in our first Spring in Southern British Columbia. There is so much to see and experience. The forests are particularly beautiful and peaceful. “Birding” here is a very different experience for me, as the forest is denser, the canopy much higher, and the variations in the forest are greater than I am used to. In very short distances there are immense differences based on elevation, terrain, relative amounts of sun and shade, forestry practices (old growth, new growth, replanted or naturally reseeded). These differences in forest have a major impact on the distribution of bird species. Birds are generally more difficult to spot by sight than what I am used to, and it is necessary to listen for identifying calls and to know more of bird behaviour with respect to type of forest, than what I am used to. The challenges are putting me on a steep learning curve, which I am enjoying. The following photos have all been taken in forests of the lower Fraser Valley over the last six weeks.

Bewick’s wren
Cedar waxwing
Townsend’s warbler
Moss, in the rain forest
Warbling vireo
Red-breasted sapsucker
Pacific slope flycatcher
Pacific wren
Cheam Lake Wetlands
Black-throated grey warbler
Hairy woodpecker
Black-headed grosbeak
Great-horned owlet

The Blues in British Columbia

No, this is not another melancholy blog post about dealing with social isolation in this time of the pandemic. It is a post about nature and some of the “blue birds” that can be seen in British Columbia! It is a good time to socially isolate in the great outdoors!

Lazuli bunting
Steller’s jay
Mountain bluebird
Barn swallow
Tree swallow
Great blue heron
Wood ducks

Earth Day, 2020

Banff National Park. The far-sighted establishment of national parks has protected so much, and need to continue, yet protected areas are being encroached on.

April 22, 2020 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of Earth Day. This movement was initiated by two American politicians from the Democratic and Republican parties, who were concerned with the prevalence of air and water pollution, the decline and disappearance of species, and the presence of toxins threatening public health. Their objective was to focus public attention on these issues in a non-partisan manner. The publication of The Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1963 and the establishment of Earth Day in 1970 are credited by many as main drivers of “the environmental movement” and subsequently many improvements were made. Important legislation was established to reduce water and air pollution, to clean up polluted lakes and rivers, to eliminate acid rain which was devastating forests around the world, to eliminate toxins such as DDT (thereby resulting in the return of bird species such as the bald eagle and the peregrine falcon), to reduce lead and mercury in gasoline and air and water emissions (thereby improving public health) and to restore and preserve habitat for nature at large and threatened species in particular. In this time period, the United States was a leader in environmental protection and this leadership prompted other countries to follow suit. Over this time period, the Earth Day movement grew to an extent that it is recognized today in more than 180 countries! It is clearly a movement that inspires international cooperation, as most environmental problems are international in scope.

The bald eagle would have become extinct had DDT not been banned.

While many problems have been solved, environmental issues have become even more serious in the intervening years with significant loss of biodiversity, loss of habitat, declining standards of environmental protection, loss of momentum for international cooperation and above all, with global warming. Like the Covid-19 Pandemic, these problems are all international in nature, and require concerted international effort and cooperation. Many scientists believe that the Covid-19 Pandemic will be relatively small in its impact on people, relative to the eventual impact of global warming, and just as there was for the pandemic, there are many warnings that we are past due the time to start to take serious actions. The templates for action were established in the 1970’s. Can we learn from the past? This is something we should all contemplate on Earth Day 2020.

African elephants, threatened by habitat loss and by poachers.

Revisiting Older Photographs

With the pandemic, and stay at home directives, I have had time to revisit photographs taken over the last few years, sometimes finding captures that I had forgotten about. This review highlights the beauty of nature, and how fortunate we are in North America to have the diversity we still have. Sadly, this diversity is threatened by loss of habitat, global warming, and laxer environmental protection standards. The losses of the last fifty years are unprecedented in the history of mankind (reference “The Sixth Extinction by Elizabeth Kolbert). Sadly, these losses are likely to increase in the future due to the very significant rollbacks of environmental protection standards and enforcement in the United States and the disdain for rain forest protection in Brazil by its current president. It upsets me to think that my grandchildren will not have the same opportunities I have had to experience the beauty and diversity of our natural world.

Bohemian waxwing
Brown (grizzly) bear
Purple finch
Varied thrush
Snowy owl
Bull moose
Woodland caribou

Northern Pygmy Owl

One of the most interesting birds I have had the opportunity to photograph this year has been the northern pygmy owl. It is a bird of western North America, found in mountainous and foothill areas from Central America to northern British Columbia. As owl locations are protected, it proved a challenge to find one, but I finally lucked out on a forest access road in the Fraser Valley about an hour drive from our home. Due to its intense eyes and small size, many find the pygmy owl “cute”, but it is a fierce predator and will take on rodents and other birds up to three times larger than itself. (It is actually not much larger than a song sparrow in length (15-17 cm.) and when a friend described to look for, he said look for a baseball at the end of a tree branch). Sure enough, that is what I found! The pygmy owl, unlike most North American owls, is mostly a day time hunter, and sticks pretty well to one specific area and thus once located, can generally be found on subsequent visits. I believe the following pictures taken over several weeks are all of the same bird, or at most, are of two different birds. On one occasion when photographing one, I believe I her the characteristic “toot” of a second nearby, although I could not locate the second one.

“Baseball at the end of a branch”.
Owl with supper- a small vole or a shrew
Owl, having swallowed the rodent, tail protruding from its mouth.

Great Grey Owls

One of the birds I have been trying to see in the wild for years, is the magnificent great grey owl. It is the “largest” of the North American owls (although not the heaviest) due to its mass of feathers. It is a bird of the north, sometimes wintering as far south as Southern Ontario, but it is rare and due to its rarity, the reporting of sightings is discouraged as people flock to see such a magnificent rarity, stressing the bird. Last October, Mary and I traveled to Alberta to try to spot this bird, but had no luck. The birding guide we had met (Ken Anderson) recommended a return in March, as this is the time of year they mate, and they are less secretive. Ken was correct with this advice, and we managed to see four or five great grey owls in total. Unlike other owls, they seemed to be curious, and on a number of occasions, after we had been still for several minutes to observe them, they flew over, seemingly to observe us. It was a wonderful experience.

Winter Birds

While winter is generally the slowest season for birding, the presence of wintering raptors and ducks makes southern BC a good location for winter birding. Here are some of my favourite photos taken in the area this winter.

Short-eared owl
Northern harrier (male). Referred to as the “grey ghost” it is often seen at dusk in the fields and marshes.
Anna’s hummingbird (female). We have had them at our feeders all winter.
Northern shoveler (male)
Surf scoter (male): one of the strangest ducks to see in flight!
Wood duck drake; My favourite of the ducks!
Juvenile bald eagle
Juvenile northern goshawk. This bird is a terror to ducks!
Juvenile peregrine falcon
Juvenile Cooper’s hawk
Bald eagle
Trumpeter swans. Several thousand reside in the Fraser Valley in the winter and numbers increase in the late winter/ early spring.
Common loon
Pintail drake
Lesser scaup drake taking flight
Sandhill cranes
Great blue heron.
Brown creeper
Song sparrow. Quiet during the winter, they are starting to sing more now.
Black turnstones
Red-tail hawk
Long-billed dowitchers
American wigeons

Endangered Species

While attention has been focused on other affairs in Washington this past week, the Government of the United States has been quietly rolling out changes to environmental protection policy. At the end of January, the Government was expected to make official a policy dramatically limiting the federal government’s authority to hold industry accountable for killing birds under one of the nation’s oldest conservation laws, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. A proposed rule will eliminate this Act’s prohibition on the killing or taking of migratory birds by industrial activities.  Each year hundreds of thousands of birds are killed by pesticides or in tailing ponds at mines or around oil wells, when they collide with buildings, wind turbines or communication towers, or when critical habitat such as wetlands or grasslands are destroyed. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act has been the most important tool to address these important but otherwise unregulated sources of mortality. This protection has now been reduced to only apply to cases where the killing of birds is the specific intent of the deeds that resulted in mortality. Negligence, collateral damage, incompetence and cost savings are now acceptable reasons for minor and mass killings of migratory birds. This is the Act that was used to fine BP for killing an estimated one million birds with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The Migratory Bird Treaty has been in place for over 100 years. This follows on the heels of rollbacks to the protections offered by the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which occurred in 2019. This act, introduced by the Nixon administration, is credited with saving such species as the bald eagle, peregrine falcon, whooping crane and the grizzly bear in its range in the United States. The approach of the present American Government would suggest that there is little to worry about with respect to species at risk, as legislative protections have been removed, protected areas eliminated, pollution standards relaxed and concerns regarding newly identified toxins are being tossed aside. Facts do not support this conclusion however. The total population of birds in North America has been reduced by about 29% since 1970. To state this another way, North America has about 3 billion fewer birds today than it did in 1970. This decline is not evenly spread out amongst all species, and many species are in severe decline and are threatened. The beneficiaries of these actions are a relatively small number of businesses and “developers”, who have no concern or understanding of the concepts of stewardship or sustainability. It is a very good thing that the present approach has not been the approach since 1970, or the reduction in bird population would be far greater than 29% and many of the species that were threatened (such as the bald eagle, peregrine falcon, whooping crane, Kirtland’s warbler etc.) would now be extinct. When will responsibility return? With all the discussion of sustainability in the public domain today, it is depressing to see such regressive governmental actions.

Whooping crane. At one point there were only 21 whooping cranes remaining in the wild. There are now about 800 in the wild in Western North America migrating between Texas and Northern Alberta. There are about 100 in the wild in Eastern North America, and their survival is very much in doubt. Sadly shooting of cranes is a significant cause of mortality. (Picture taken in Indiana)
Peregrine falcon. At one point the number of breeding pairs in the United States numbered in the hundreds. Their decline was attributed to DDT in the environment. They are now making a healthy rebound in numbers. (Picture taken in Ontario.)
Kirtland’s warbler. This species is dependent on developing jack pine forests. Its numbers have been reduced by loss of habitat. The fact that it is still with us is due to impressive efforts of the State of Michigan. (Picture taken in Michigan).
Bald eagle. At one point there were less than 500 breeding pairs in the lower 48 states of the United States. The Species at Risk Act of 1973 was critical in supporting the return of this species. (Picture taken in BC).